5 Things to Keep in Mind When Providing Hospice Care

Death and dying are topics that are not often discussed within our culture. It is often avoided, left-alone, and remain as lingering thoughts in our mind. According to Broderick (1988), decades ago, death was a subject less likely than sex to be found in most college curriculum but the commitment to the subject varies from discipline to discipline (Huff, Weisenfluh, Murphy, & Black, p. 220). Today thousands of colleges and universities are involved in death education. Thanks to the wonderful work of our social workers, the importance and discussion of this topic is expanding. Social workers are the only healthcare professionals that focus solely on the psychosocial aspects of death and dying, working directly with the family and client in adjusting to the life-threatening illness and providing them with the adequate resources (Huff, Weisenfluh, Murphy, & Black, p. 227).

  1. “Never tell someone you know exactly what they are going through” (Hopkins, lecture). This may devalue their experience. We may share similar experiences but not everyone has the same exact feelings & reactions to these experiences. It’s important to value and take into consideration the uniqueness of each individual and their troubles.

  1. “Invite adults into the conversation versus asking direct questions” (Hopkins, lecture). There is a difference between directly asking a client, “how do you feel about your grandmother’s death?” and “I really miss my grandmother, it was a hard process letting go. I remember going on hikes with my grandmother and exploring the parks around our town, do you recall any special or joyful moments you shared with your grandmother”? The question is less intrusive and more inviting, allowing for clients to start reflecting on their own thoughts/feelings in regards to the death of their loved ones.

  1. “You should support the person, check up on them, and be there for them down the road” (Hopkins, lecture). Consistency is key. Telling someone, “call me if you need me” is not enough. People need external support throughout their entire grieving process. As previously mentioned, grieving is a very sad and internal process that may last for multiple years. Often the 2nd second year is the most difficult, as people may start to wake up to the reality that their loved ones are no longer with them (Hopkins, lecture).

  1. When addressing self-disclosure, ask yourself “What is the purpose? Is it going to help your work? While it is important to connect with clients by fostering a sense of genuine care and empathy, you also have to consider just how much is too much. Establishing an appropriate boundary in sharing personal experiences with clients is essential to providing the best possible care to clients. As previously mentioned, you do not want to take away from the client’s individual experience. If what you are revealing is line with helping the client reach their goals, then it may be okay to self-disclose.

  1. Make sure you are properly taking care of yourself; practice positive self-care. Because death can be a very emotionally triggering and taxing experience, it’s important to formulate a proper self-care plan to deal with the emotional ramifications of a client’s death.

    For example, a member of a focus group intended to better understand the educational needs of social work students working with dying clients stated, “I found that the only way that I could deal with the stress of work was to meditate in the mornings, eat right, and get plenty of rest. Otherwise, I couldn’t deal with the death that I saw in my clients” (Huff, Weisenfluh, Murphy, & Black, p. 226).

Your self-care plan has to be suited to meet your own personal needs and may thus consist of different activities that uplift you and help to alleviate the cluster of emotions you are likely to undergo in this field.


Hopkins, S. (2016). Lecture on Hospice Care.

Huff, M., Weisenfluh, S., & Murphy, M. (2008). End-of-Life Care and Social Work Education.   Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 48(1-2), 219-231. doi:10.1300/J083v48n01_15

Understanding Mental Health Through the Lens of the Medical/Disease, Psychological/Behavior and Social/Environmental Model

What is Mental Health? Mental Health is a complex and sensitive topic that has recently undergone certain changes in terms of how it is defined, how it is discussed, and how those who cope with mental health issues are perceived and treated. Today, debates continue over whether mental health is a result of physical (biological or brain chemistry) problems, morally corrupt behavior, and/or unfit social environments (DiNitto & McNeece , p. 148). This listicle will look at how the following models define mental illness

Medical Model

  • In this perspective, a mental illness is believed to be a result of some form of bodily dysfunction, including physiological, biochemical, or genetic causes and can therefore be treated through medically grounded procedures (Gupta &  Patel, Models of Mental Illness)


  • To “diagnose” individuals, the medical model utilizes laboratory testing, body imaging, and/or physical examinations to assess and predict how a mental illness will run its course (lecture notes 04/19/16)


  • May include the distribution of medication to treat and reduce symptoms of the identified mental disorder

Psychological/Behavior Model

  • Through this model, mental illnesses are a result of the individuals own wrong-doings, inability to follow social orders, and moral incapacitated (lecture notes 04/19/16)


  • Focuses on learned behavior, such that mental illnesses can be understood by observing stimuli and the reinforcing conditions that control it (Gupta &  Patel, Models of Mental Illness)


  • Can be a result of biased or incoherent thinking patterns. Makes a connection between thought processing and how it can lead to maladaptive emotions and behavior. Therefore to correct mental disorder, changing ones thinking processes is necessary (Gupta &  Patel, Models of Mental Illness)

Social/Environmental Model

  • Seeks to assess how ones environment and other systems influence the way in which one copes with life stressors


  • Mental disorders may be a result of chronic strains in the environment and/or negative life events that generate certain responses from those experiencing these events leading to an adaption or manifestation of the disorder (Gupta &  Patel, Models of Mental Illness)


  • Suggests that social structures impose restrictions on behavior, as surely as biological inheritance and that the effects of one’s social conditions need to be considered to explain both individual distress and how this distress might be related to larger forces (Gupta &  Patel, Models of Mental Illness)

It’s important to consider a wide variety of factors when seeking to understand others and how their experiences have shaped the way in which they interpret and respond to life events. What is mental health? Who determines what it means to be “mentally healthy”? What constitutes a mental disorder?


DiNitto, D., & McNeece, C. (2008). Social work: Issues and opportunities in a challenging profession (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: Lyceum Books

Gupta, D. S., &  Patel, J. Models of Mental Illness [Power Point Presentation]. Retrieved from Online Presentation Website :http://www.slideshare.net/SudarshanaDasgupta/models-of-mental-health-illness

Vassello, J. (2016). Mental Health [Power Point Presentation]Retrieved from lecture notes.










10 Successful and Widely Recognized People with Disabilities

Disability is a term that has undergone several changes in how its defined due to the progression of research and further education on disabilities and its implication on the way in which our society treats and understands people with disabilities. Different organizations and professions define the term differently, such as the World Health organization which states, “A disability is any kind of restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. The institute of medicine’s definition of poverty focuses more on social and environmental factors in addition to individual problems (DiNitto & McNeece, p. 217). There has been a shift in the use of terms used to define people with disabilities, as several movements have urged that the term “mental retardation” be replaced with  “intellectual disabilities” to combat the  stigma against our disabilities (DiNitto & McNeece, p. 220).  Although our society has made progress in how it cares for people with disabilities, such that are now more services that target different kinds of disabilities and there has been a reformation in the terms used to describe people with disabilities, there is still a lack of understanding and belief of misconceptions that shape the way our society views people with disabilities.

This listicle aims to shed these common misconceptions and present some pioneers who challenge these views and have proved that having a disability does not make anyone less capable of making a positive impact and  being successful. 

  1. Nyle Dimarco (Born in 1986)

 An American model, actor and activist, Nyle is the first death contestant to compete in and win Americas Next Top Model Cycle 22! He is also currently competing on Dancing with the Stars. He is an alumni of Gallaudet University, the only Liberal Arts University in the world for the deaf. Nyle’s castings include: The lead in independent film “In the can” an ASL production, and as Garett on ABC Family’s show Switched At Birth. He is an avid spokesperson for Language Equality and Acquisition for Deaf Kids (LEAD-K) and is the signer and creative collaborator on the ASL app created by Native Deaf signers to teach conversational American Sign Language.  

  1. Helen Keller (Born 1880-1968)
  • An American author, activist and lecturer. She was the first deafblind person to earn a Bachelor’s of Arts Degree! She campaigned for women’s suffrage, worker’s rights, socialism and other progressive movements. She also helped found the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).

  1. FDR (Born in 1882-1945)
  • Former president of the United States who helped guide us through WW2. Throughout his time in office, he was wheel-chair user due to his contraction of polio which paralyze him from the waist down. FDR provide that paralysis was not a roadblock to being a great leader.

  1. Stevie Wonder (Born in 1950)
  • One of the most idolized artists today, Stevie Wonder has achieved great success as a musician, singer, and song writer who was born blind. He has recorded more than 30 top ten hits including his singles, “Superstition”, “Sir Duke” and “I Just Called to say I Love you”. 

  1. Ray Charles (1930-2004)
  • A pioneer of soul music, integrating R &B, gospel, pop and country to create hits like “Unchain my Heart” and “Georgia on My Mind”, he was known as blind genius and considered one the greatest artists of all time.  He has won multiple Grammies including one for “Georgia on My Mind” and some of his songs have topped R & B charts.

6. Harriet Tubman (1820-1913)

  • One of the most prominent advocates for black and women suffrage, Tubman helped over 300 slaves escape slavery in the south through the network of safe houses known as the Underground Railroad. Early in her life she suffered a severe head injury when as slave owner hit her with metal weight. As result of this injury she suffered from debilitating epileptic seizures and narcolepsy throughout her life.

  1. Will Smith (1968)

Actor, comedian, producer, rapper and songwriter, has been a prominent figure and icon within the Hollywood scene. Will Smith is dyslexic and has attributed most of his success as an actor to his early struggles with reading allowing for him to approach acting and producing movies from a different angle than others. 


  1. James Earl Jones (1931)
  • Has one of the most recognizable voices in show business and his performance in Dreams, The Lion King, and Star Wars are iconic. As a 4-year old, Jones developed a severe stutter that caused him to shut down and barely speak to anyone for 8 years. Jones overcome his stutter through therapy and practice and although he still stutters, he has learned to how to use it and work around it.

  1. Stephen Hawking (1942)
  • One of the most well-known physicists in the world, who was able to achieve several successes such as his show “Into the Universe” on discovery channel, despite having ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis). His disability however, has never been an excuse to give up on his desire to study the universe, specifically the framework of general relativity and quantum mechanics. His best-selling work, A Brief History of Time, stayed on the Sunday Times bestsellers list for an astounding 237 weeks.


  1. Sudha Chandran (1964)
  • Is one of the most well-known dancers and TV actresses in India. Despite losing her legs to an infection she contracted after a car accident in 1981, she was known as a Bharatanatyam dancer and was able to teach herself how to dance using a prosthetic “Japir foot” enabling her to become one of the most highly acclaimed dancers in the world.


Biography.com Editors. (2016). Ray Charles Biography. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved from http://www.biography.com/people/ray-charles-9245001
Biography.com Editors. (2016). Will Smith Biograph. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved from http://http://www.biography.com/people/will-smith-9542165

Dinitto, D. , & McNeece, C. (2008). Social Work Issues and Opportunities: In A Challenging Profession. (3rd Edition).Chicago, IL: Lyceum Books.

Huffington Post. (2013). 10 Majorly Successful People With Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/22/famous-people-with-disabilities_n_4142930.html

Listversestaff. (2010). Top 10 Extraordinary People With Disabilities. Retrieved http://listverse.com/2010/01/18/top-10-extraordinary-people-with-disabilities/

Slobodeniuk, O. Nyle Dimarco. Retrieved from Nyle Dimarco http://www.nyledimarco.com/about/ 

Slowinski, S. (2014). Recognizing Black Americans Who Live With Disabilities. Retrieved from (http://www.pyd.org/blog/black-history-month-disability/)

The Different Uses of BSW & MSW Social Workers in Providing Child Welfare Services

BSW & MSW graduates have important but different roles to play in CPS, where a wide array of responsibilities, demands many skills and functional competencies to perform essential activities (Rittner & Wodarski p. 234) . BSW and MSW graduates each possess a distinctive set of skills and knowledge that provide them with the ability to provide selective interventions and services within the realm of Child Welfare.

BSW Social Workers

  • Generalist practice prepares students for work as hot-line screeners, foster-care case managers, and case workers with low-to-moderate risk families, and to recruit, screen, and train potential foster and adoptive parents (Rittner & Wodarski p. 217)
  • Generally identified with entry level child welfare positions (Rittner & Wodarski p. 218)
  • Curriculum- They are informed about federal, state, and local policies regarding mandated services for children and their families (Rittner & Wodarski p. 218)
  • They are taught to perform basic practice skills of engagement, interviewing, assessment, and problem-oriented interventions (Rittner & Wodarski p. 219)



MSW Social Workers

  • Advanced generalist practice prepares students to conduct initial investigations, working with high-risk families, terminating parental rights, placing children with adoptive families, and serving administrative and supervisory roles (Rittner & Wodarski p. 217)
  • More closely identified with clinical and managerial positions (Rittner & Wodarski p. 218)
  • Differs from the BSW due to the depth & breadth & specificity of knowledge that they are expected to synthesize and apply in practice (Rittner & Wodarski p. 219)
  • Many MSW programs offer focused course content on services and practice orientations that are directly related to assessing and intervening with maltreating families at both micro-macro level (Rittner & Wodarski p. 219)


Rittner, B., & Wodarski, J. (1999). Differential uses for BSW and MSW educated social     workers in child welfare services. Children and Youth Services Review, 21(3),                         217-235.

10 Things You May Not Have Known About Substance Abuse in The Context of LGBT Health

lgbt equality

History & Politics of LGBT Research/Criminalization of The LGBT community

  1. Historically, research on those who identity as LGBT has been approached within a criminological framework, such that scientists would associate health disparities with criminal behavior, thus labeling ones sexuality identity and same-sex behavior as unnatural, disorderly and destructive to societal norms.
  1. In the United States, around the mid-late 1900s, most research efforts to describe LGBT people were rejected & underfunded. In addition, political pressure made it difficult to conduct such studies (Silvestre, Beatty & Friedman p.368)
  1. Although there is a great amount of research about gay men driven by the HIV pandemic, the literature reflects little focus on gay men experiencing multiple dimensions of marginalization such as minority race and/or ethnicity, young or old age, rural residence, and low socioeconomic status (Silvestre, Beatty & Friedman p. 369)

Lack of Education/Training

  1. Due to the lack of research available in regards to the LGBT community, there is not a sufficient amount of knowledge to effectively design and implement appropriate medical and health-related academic training programs (Silvestre, Beatty & Friedman p. 370)
  1. Professionals often feel inadequate in providing care to LGBT clients. Data suggest that most physicians receive just 2-4 hours of training on LGBT issues in medical school, and about 30% admit to being nervous around homosexuals (Silvestre, Beatty & Friedman p. 371)


Prevalence & Risk Factors for Substance Use Among LGBT & MSM with HIV

  1. Stall et al.’s 2001 findings found from the urban Men’s health study reported that 52% of urban MSM had sued drugs in the previous 6 months and 85% used alcohol. (Silvestre, Beatty & Friedman p.369) Lim et al’s 2012 findings found that almost 10% of gay and bisexual men used three or more drugs regularly each week after age 50 (Silvestre, Beatty & Friedman p. 369)Additionally rates of using club drugs, such as Ecstasy, PCP, Ketamine and inhalants, among gay and bisexual males are disproportionally higher than among hetero men (Silvestre, Beatty & Friedman p. 369)
  1. Studies found that parental substance abuse, a violent home of origin, and childhood sexual abuse were all related to increased depression, higher rates of HIV and hepatitis, and increase substance use (Silvestre, Beatty & Friedman p. 369) These findings are particularly relevant because data shoes higher rates of depression, parental rejection, bullying, and increased suicidal ideation among LGBT youth (Silvestre, Beatty & Friedman p.369)
  1. Among the few studies done on lesbians, bisexual women and transgender people, many find that there are increased rates of drinking among lesbians, particularly older lesbians, elevated rates of alcohol use and other health problems, and high rates of concurrent substance use and sex among bisexuals (Silvestre, Beatty & Friedman p.370)


  1. Social workers should seek to further educate themselves on LGBT related issues/subjects in order to further enhance their ability to provide the best intervention methods/treatment for LGBT clients

10. As researchers, social workers can work to add variables related to sexual identity   orientation and gender identity in every study they fund, monitor, or carry out (Silvestre, Beatty & Friedman p. 373). As teachers, social workers can integrate LGBT content into their curriculum, and support students and other faculty interested in this issue (Silvestre, Beatty & Friedman p. 374). As advocates, social workers can work to advocate within their professional associations and public and private funders; to hire staff who have knowledge about and concern for LGBT health (Silvestre, Beatty & Friedman p. 374). Social workers can do an assessment of LGBT-related policies and practices and work to make them more inclusive (Silvestre, Beatty & Friedman p. 374).

rainbow gay daily show flag lgbt


Silvestre, A., Beatty, R., & Friedman, M. (2013). Substance Use Disorder in the

Context of LGBT Health: A Social Work Perspective. Social Work in Public

Health, 28, 366-376.

From the Outside Looking in: Life as told by War Veterans

Serving in the military during combat, is an experience that can distort ones social functioning. War veterans often face a new set of challenges after serving their time and experience trouble reintegrating back into society. These challenges may include but are not limited to, living with PTSD, sleep problems, alcohol and/or drug problems, depression, anxiety, anger problems, coping with military sexual trauma/harassment, and/or relational problems (trouble maintaining relations with intimate partners, family, & friends). War veterans are also susceptible to larger social issues such as homelessness. Enough with words, what better way to further understand the world of a veteran then to see a visual depiction of some of their daily struggles.

War Veterans are often susceptible to (PTSD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, which occurs after one has been through a traumatic event such as combat exposure, sexual or physical assault, terrorist attacks, and/or serious accidents. One of the symptoms of PTSD include flashbacks, having bad memories or nightmares and or feeling as if you’re reliving the event (What is PTSD, pp. 2-4).

 A Veterans reality may be disrupted, such that they feel hyper-arousal, tense, and or jittery. They may always be alert and on the lookout for danger (What is PTSD p. 2). For example, Connie shared a story about one of her clients who purchased gas masks for his whole family and would avoid going out unless his whole family was with him.

 Some soldiers may avoid situations that remind them of the event. They may avoid talking about or thinking about the event, as reflected in one of the statements made by the solider in the in class video we watched, “your forced to put your feelings in a box, and never open it up again”.

Homelessness is another issue that veterans often experience. Followed by homelessness, is substance abuse, employment problems, feelings of hopelessness, shame, or despair and depression or anxiety. In Rosenberg’s role as a veterans outreach social worker, he notes the kinds of living accommodations veterans create for themselves. Veterans set up their own camping ground, consisting of those similarity situated. Many camp residents came to believe that they would be able to squat on city property indefinitely, they came to consider it their home. They had their own shacks, beds, & stoves. They have long since given up on the idea that they will ever hold regular full-time jobs or reside in apartments. As a rule they have been homeless longer than any other subgroup and have settled into the lifestyle that they believe is their lot (Grobman p. 341). 

Relationships are often difficult to maintain, as veterans may seek to over-protect their loved ones due to the fear of their lives being in danger. Fear of possible loss may prevent veterans from pursing new friendships and from engaging in social activities. 

 While war veterans may experience a wide array of challenges, they are still capable of leading successful lives as there are many ways in which military social workers provide adequate interventions and assist veterans in reintegrating back into society. Military social workers may provide veterans with direct services such as family violence/martial/couples counseling, alcohol and/or drug abuse counseling, helping them cope with depression and anxiety, stress, bereavement counseling, and military sexual trauma/harassment counseling. Social workers have also provided indirect services focusing on issues such as policy development, screening of recruits, and advocating for and developing services for military personnel and their families (Daley, p. 438). 


 Daley, J. (2003). Military Social Work: A Multi-Country Comparison. International

       Social Work Int Soc Work, 46(4), 437-448. doi:10.1177/0020872803464002

Grobman, L. (2012). Days in the Lives of Social Workers (4th ed.). Harrisburg: White

       Hat Communications.

Morel, O., Mael, & Gauvin, E. (2015). Haunted. In Walking wounded: Uncut stories

        from Iraq (pp. 8-62). New York, NY: NBM Publishing.

U.S Department of Veterans Affairs (2015). What is PTSD. Retrieved from         http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/PTSD-overview/basics/what-is-ptsd.asp.

The Inside Scope of Social Workers in Health Care as Told by 7 Different Accounts

Medical Social workers take on various responsibilities depending on the shift they are assigned, the setting, and patient’s needs (DiNitto & McNeece p. 204). These account reflects the constant flow of different people who bring different concerns, calling for different actions on behalf the social worker.

Chapter 1: Social Work in the ER

 Ogden Rogers

  • “No Matter the costs of tragedy, there are little moments of quiet heroics as well. Sometimes hours of boredom are punctuated by minutes of terrific activity. One has to think fast on one’s feet. The ER is more like a beach, where the sea and the land meet, changing each other over and over. To do social work in the ER takes the heart and mind of a surfer, each new person off the street is another wave to meet well” (Grobman, p. 36).

Chapter 2: Social Work in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Merle T. Edwards-Orr

  • “I had to two pagers to carry on this day. On my right side pocket my usual pager so the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit could track me down. On my left side, I carried the pager for the emergency room, as I do every other Monday. In the minutes between phone calls and talks with medical staff, I filled out some SSI applications. Name, condition, demographics about the doctors and hospital, a little bit about tests, & a couple of releases and that was about it (Grobman, p. 39).
  • “This was a routine conversation, helping people locate and sort out resources” (Grobman, p. 42).
  • This all happened between miscellaneous phone calls, SSI applications, pages from the pharmacy for permission to approve social work department payment for prescriptions, and the rest of the little stuff that no one remembers but takes up minutes and hours in the day. No meetings today. And charting, I needed to make sure each of these major contacts had a note in the chart, so other team members were aware of mu observations (Grobman,p. 44).


Chapter 3: Remembering Why I become a social worker: Lessons learned on internal Medicine

Jodi Goldstein

Jodi Goldstein received a referral to assess a severely cognitively impaired and frail senior whose primary caregiver is her son Paul. He wanted to place her in a specific nursing home.

  • “Today I assisted in reducing these feelings of despair experienced by Paul. Paul helped to remind me to look deeply into the lives of our patients and, rather than personalize negative events, to remember to allow time for the healing process. Paul needed that time to come to terms with the fact that his mother needed to be placed in a nursing home now, not in 5 years (Grobman,p. 45)
  • Despite beginning with feelings of dread, I realize once again why I am in this field. As much as I can be helpful to my patients, I am constantly learning about myself and others. (Grobman,p. 48)

Chapter 4: Social Work in the Infertility Clinic

Gretchen Gross

  • My position as a counselor in a university-affiliated outpatient medical clinic provides me with much more autonomy and control over my professional life, my case load, and diversity of population and services offered (Grobman, p. 49)
  • Each day I see a variety of couples and individuals who are referred to me by physicians, midwives, and other practitioners who provide reproductive services to our patients. I provide services in the same manner that I do at my private practice. I schedule my own clients, attend weekly in-vitro fertilization (IVF) team meetings, present at resident didactics, and present at department grand rounds. I counsel with physicians on troublesome cases, and treat or refer clients as needed (Grobman,p.49)
  • I must always challenge my own ethical standards & learn more to keep up with developments and changes in many areas (Grobman,p. 53)
  • One drawback of this field is that I miss working with other clinical social workers (most clinics have one staff counselor) (Grobman,p. 53).

Chapter 5: Working with pregnant women in public health (55)

Aldreda Paschall Gee

  • I work with pregnant women. I am paid by the county from funds I generate by billing Medicaid for the contacts I make with patients in the maternity clinics. I follow each patient from time to time, I meet her until roughly two months after her pregnancy ends, regardless of the pregnancy outcome. I work in two settings: the local hospital’s Ob/GYN clinic, and a newly-formed private OB/GYN office (Grobman, p. 55)


  • The job has specific requirements set out by state guidelines, but affords a good deal of autonomy and professional judgment. There are four social workers involved in the maternity team, and we work with nurses and are supervised by a nurse (Grobman, p. 55)

Chapter 6: Managing in Managed Care

David C. Prichard

  • “My specialty is in crisis intervention and trauma, and therefore I select cases in which clients have clear precipitating events that have led to the presenting symptoms. My treatment is crisis-oriented and focused on reducing the immediate symptoms of the trauma (Grobman, p. 62-63). 
  • I spend most of my afternoons on the phone with providers, discussing cases. Although many 0rivers appear to view me as someone whose job is to restrict treatment, I see my role as one of collaborator, providing free, collegial, peer supervision (Grobman, p. 62-63). 
  • I am relieved when 5’ o’clock arrives. I feel as though I’ve been on the phone and computer all day, yet there remain many charts and unanswered phone messages scattered on my desk. These will have to wait until tomorrow. (Grobman, p. 62-63)

Chapter 7: Social Work in the Commissioned Corps

Gary Lounsbery  

  • My current assignment is as a mental health consultant in an Indian health service unit in Northeastern Oklahoma. I have been here for two years, and this is my second assignment since receiving my commission six years ago. Officers change assignments every four years. I enjoy the opportunity to experience different parts of the world with different cultures (Grobman, p.65).
  • Within a broadly defined position description, I have a great deal of latitude in how I structure and carry out my duties. I can initiate new services in my current position or seek to transfer within the whole range of the commissioned corps. This range includes all the programs in the department of health and human services, including the national institutes of health and the Centers for Disease Control (Grobman, p. 69-70).  


DiNitto, D., & McNeece, C. (2008). Social work: Issues and opportunities in a
challenging profession (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: Lyceum Books.

Grobman, L. (2012). Days in the Lives of Social Workers (4th ed.). Harrisburg: White Hat Communications.