5 Facts About End of Life Care-Carly Danowitz

  1. Frail elderly is a term used to identify a group of the elderly population with severe limitations in activities including walking speed, chronic exhaustion, weak grip strength, and declining activity levels. Many of the clients gerontological social workers work with are considered frail elderly. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 262)


  1. People of color have shown low utilization rate of mainstream healthcare and social services. It is very important for social workers to make sure that the elder care and other services they are referring their clients to are culturally relevant. In doing so, social workers should develop relationships with various religious organizations and ethnic social groups who can help coordinate services to elder people of color. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 269)


  1. Illnesses and disabilities in elderly people causes declines in functioning and can also limit a person’s ability to perform basic activities such as bathing and toileting, as well as independent activities in daily life including housework, money management, and meal preparation. About 1/3 of elderly Americans have a severe disability, and as age increases, the risks from these disabilities increase as well. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 272)


  1. According to the National Alliance for Caregiving and the American Association of Retired Persons, its estimated that 34 million caregivers in the United States provide unpaid caregiving to people over the age 50. These caregivers are commonly the elderly person’s spouse, children, or children-in-law. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 279)


  1. State adult protective services are extremely important, especially because some older adults are emotionally or physically abused or financially exploited by caretakers, their family, and others. When the elderly person cannot care for him or herself and are unwilling to receive assistance from others is considered self-neglect. The adult protective services employs social workers to investigate these cases, and when warranted, take actions to secure services needed by these people. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 281)



DiNitto, D., & McNeece, C. (2008). Social work: Issues and opportunities in a challenging profession (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: Lyceum Books.


8 Facts About Mental Health You Wanna Know Now! -Carly Danowitz

  1. So many social workers are in mental health practice because almost half of Americans (46%), experience some form of mental illness in their life span. Some of the most common mental disorders are: mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and impulse-control disorders. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 145)


  1. Most of the research performed within mental health has been with male subjects. However, women are more likely than men to suffer from depression. Biology cannot adequately explain this phenomenon. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 156)


  1. One counseling approach employed by social workers is motivational interviewing, which seeks to gain the clients trust and help them move toward a more positive direction. They teach them to use empathy, develop discrepancy, support self-efficacy, and to respond differently. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 160)


  1. Youths are a primary concern for social workers that work in the mental health realm. This is because half of mental disorders appear by age 14, and 75% by the age of 24. Even so, more mental health services are offered to adults rather than children. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 153)


  1. Commonly, people with mental health disorders have more than one disorder. This is called comorbidity. One common disorder that is comorbid with many mental health disorders is substance use disorder. This can be applied to drugs and alcohol. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p.147)


  1. 20-25% of homeless individuals have a serious mental illness. These people also have problems with employment, criminal justice system, as well as social and family relationships. They also commonly have alcohol or drug abuse problems. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p.154-155)


  1. Many social workers provide case management, also called care management. This is a system in which the social worker makes sure their client has access to and obtains all the services and resources that can help them maintain their most optimal functioning. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 158)


  1. 5-7% of adults have a serious mental illness and 5-9% of children have a serious mental illness. Social workers who work in the public mental health agencies work mainly with clients that have serious mental illnesses. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 147)




DiNitto, D., & McNeece, C. (2008). Social work: Issues and opportunities in a challenging profession (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: Lyceum Books.


6 Definitions of Disabilities-Carly Danowitz

  1. World Health Organization definition: any lack of ability or restriction to perform an activity in the range or manner considered normal for humans. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 217)



  1. American With Disabilities Act definition: a mental or physical impairment which substantially limits one or more of an individual’s regular life activities such as education, employment, self-care or socialization, there must be record of such an impairment, and the individual must be considered as having an impairment. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 217)



  1. Mackelprang and Salsgiver definition: all professions define disability differently, because some recognize other factors, such as environment, in addition to the individual’s problems. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 217)



  1. Institute of Medicine definition: specifically stresses risk factors associated with health-related conditions, including physical, biological, behavioral, social, and environmental characteristics. Disability is not determined only by biology; it is a combination of factors that become an impairment, which progresses from a limitation to a full disability. It does not have to be a unitary condition; an individual can have secondary conditions or multiple disabilities. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 217-218)



  1. Rothman definition: our society defines disability as anyone with a mobility limitation, commonly wheelchair users. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 218)


  1. Developmental Disability definition: a chronic and severe condition which comes from a physical or mental impairment, is permanent (continues), occurs before age 21, requires professional services for a lifelong duration that is planned case by case from many disciplines, and results in major functional limitations in the major areas of life including learning, self-care, self-sufficiency economically, language, mobility, and capacity for living independently. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 218)




DiNitto, D., & McNeece, C. (2008). Social work: Issues and opportunities in a challenging profession (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: Lyceum Books.


The Treatment Approaches to Substance Abuse-Carly Danowitz

  1. Pharmacotherapy: Medications help to decrease cravings for drugs and help establish normal brain functioning. Drugs used to treat opiates addictions are methadone and buprenorphine. Drugs used to treat alcohol addiction are Disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprasate. (Straussner, 2012, p. 128-129)


  1. Behavioral therapies: Many of these therapies are used for the treatment of substance abuse. These help people engage in treatment and in their recovery process. They also provide incentives to remain off drugs, modify their substance behaviors, and improve skills to handle stress and environmental cues that triggers cravings. (Straussner, 2012, p. 129)


  1. Contingency Management: This form of behavioral therapy involves giving incentives to patients for meeting their behavioral goals. This is especially effective for people who are abusing marijuana, alcohol, narcotics, and stimulants. (Straussner, 2012, p. 129)


  1. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Another type of behavioral therapy, which attempts to decrease self-defeating behaviors by means of modifying maladaptive beliefs and teaching thought control techniques. Essentially tries to enhance patient’s self-control. This teaches the patient to weigh the costs and benefits of their continued substance use, and to specifically pay attention to their thinking as well as their cravings. The patient will learn to identify high-risk situations as to not ruin their recovery, and will learn effective strategies to prevent relapse. (Straussner, 2012, p. 129)


  1. Motivational Enhancement Therapy: This is associated with the Stages of Change model and the techniques of Motivational Interviewing. This therapy emphasizes techniques such as avoiding argumentation, expressing empathy, and developing discrepancies. MET is especially successful in engaging substance abusers into treatment, and some use MET as a preparation for other, more intensive therapy. (Straussner, 2012, p. 129-130)


  1. Twelve Step Facilitation Therapy: TWF is a structured approach to bring in early recovery from substance abuse. It stems from cognitive, behavioral, and spiritual principles from Narcotics Anonymous and Alcoholics Anonymous. Being able to accept that addiction is a chronic disease that the person is powerless over and which has become unmanageable, as well as active involvement in the 12 steps is a central principle in this type of therapy. (Straussner, 2012, p. 130)


  1. Harm Reduction: This treatment approach is a range of evidence-based public health policies that are created to decrease harmful consequences that are associated with drug use. This includes needle exchange programs and therapies of opioid substitution. This is in line with traditional social work values. (Straussner, 2012, p. 130)




Straussner, S. (2012). Clinical Treatment of Substance Abusers: Past, Present and Future. Clinical Social Work Journal Clin Soc Work J, 40, 127-133.


8 Facts About Military Social Work You Need to Know Right Now-Carly Danowitz

  1. Military social workers provide many services to their clients. Some of these services focus on mental illness, wartime trauma, family violence, coping with illnesses, substance abuse, and improving their health. (Daley, 2003, p. 438)


  1. Conferences for military social workers should focus on topics such as cross-national cooperation, ethical dilemmas for military social workers, policy advocacy skills, and effective strategies for working with families of deployed troops, as well as the deployed troops themselves. (Daley, 2003, p. 446)

Lieutenant General John Nicholson, Commander of Allied Land Command (LANDCOM) and General Petr Pavel, Chairman of the NATO Military Committee

  1. Social workers began providing services to the military in 1918 when the Red Cross began a demonstration project that proved to be very successful. In 1945, army social workers were first enlisted and in 1952 the first air force social worker was commissioned as an officer. (Daley, 2003, p. 439)


  1. Social workers that work within the military setting, as both civilian and military social workers, are required to have at least an MSW degree, but many also have PhD’s. (Daley, 2003, p. 440)


  1. Military social workers initially took the role of mental health clinicians, and have since took on many other services such as substance abuse treatment services, family support programs, family violence prevention and intervention, medical services, and stress response teams. (Daley, 2003, p. 439)


6. Military social workers believe there are some common elements in which should be standards for what they do. Some of these include advocacy, client empowerment, and help with basic social services. (Daley, 2003, p. 437)


  1. Some of the requirements for military social work are ensuring the best quality of professionalism, implementing programs to reduce the likelihood of psychosocial problems, enhancing soldier’s ability to recover from warfare, and developing military policies, as well as procedures, that minimize psychosocial damage. (Daley, 2003, p. 438-439)


  1. There are currently 600 civilian social workers, 150 army social work officers, 215 air force social work officers, and 31 navy social work officers in the United States Military. (Daley, 2003, p. 439)




Daley, J. (2003). Military Social Work: A Multi-Country Comparison. International Social Work Int Soc Work, 46(4), 437-448. doi:10.1177/0020872803464002


7 Ways Social Workers Work in Health Care- Carly Danowitz

  1. Hospital social workers usually take the role of direct patient care, which includes discharge planning activities, coordinating community support systems, relocation of patients, assisting patients and the families understanding their diagnosis, and crisis intervention/counseling services. (Judd & Sheffield, 2010, p. 863-864)



  1. Low health literacy is associated with poorer health outcomes and worse quality of care. (Liechty, 2011, p. 99)

over head


  1. More and more managers in hospitals are obtaining degrees in fields other than social work, which makes it necessary to learn how these managers understanding of professional abilities, skills, values, and ethics effect the opportunities for hospital social workers. (Judd & Sheffield, 2010, p. 867-868)



  1. Hospital social workers are able to design programs that focus on wellness and health education, and can work with employers to afford financial coverage for these programs to be provided to employees. (Judd & Sheffield, 2010, p. 868)


  1. Social workers have the ability to help patients and families increase their health literacy knowledge by performing casework interactions and counseling to ensure patients receive the right information, which they can also understand. (Liechty, 2011, p. 104)



  1. Social workers can lead initiatives to increase health literacy in hospital settings such as implementation of plain language (instead of using medial terminologies) in diagnoses and explanation of diagnoses, hospital staff training in health literacy, screening of patients for low health literacy, and referrals to patients of low health literacy for counseling and assistance. (Liechty, 2011, p. 105)



  1. Medical social work incorporates a psychological perspective, fueled by insurance reimbursement, and case management, including discharge planning, that has been driven by cost controls and managed care. (Di
    Nitto & McNeece, 2008, p.195)




DiNitto, D., & McNeece, C. (2008). Social work: Issues and opportunities in a challenging profession (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: Lyceum Books.

Judd, R., & Sheffield, S. (2010). Hospital Social Work: Contemporary Roles and Professional Activities. Social Work in Health Care, 49(9), 856-871. doi:10.1080/00981389.2010.499825

Liechty, J. (2011). Health Literacy: Critical Opportunities for Social Work Leadership in Health Care and Research. Health & Social Work, 99-107.

6 Facts You Need to Know About Poverty-Carly Danowitz

  1. The Poor Act Law was the first structured plan giving public officials guidelines on how to go about fighting poverty. It categorized the poor based on their worthiness for aid. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 286)




  1. There are many computer programming jobs, and others, which require advanced education being outsourced to other countries. Americans also wear clothes that are made by laborers in other countries that make much less than people of this country. These jobs could be given to Americans, to save many people from facing poverty. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 300)




  1. “Culture of poverty” is the set of beliefs, behaviors, and values passed down from one generation to the next that differs from those of the people who are not poor. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 294)




  1. The social workers that work for the Head Start preschool program, started in the 1960’s, serve as advocates for family outreach and work with families from low-income backgrounds to help their children prepare for elementary school. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 304)




  1. The poverty rate for blacks and American Indians is 25%, 22% for Hispanics, 11% for Asians, and 8% for whites. It is highest in the West and the South, and lowest in the Northeast and Midwest. Poverty also tends to be higher in rural areas compared to urban areas. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 302)




  1. Social workers don’t believe that there is evidence that any group is genetically inferior to another or genetics is a reasonable explanation for the large amount of people and families who fall into poverty. (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, p. 293)




DiNitto, D., & McNeece, C. (2008). Social work: Issues and opportunities in a

challenging profession (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: Lyceum Books.


6 Facts About IPV, You May Not Know-Carly Danowitz

  1. There are multiple definitions of the term “domestic abuse” depending on who is defining the term. For example, the Women’s Aid Federation of England defines it as physical, sexual, psychological, or financial violence in an intimate or family-type relationship. The Scottish Executive on the other hand, makes mention of children, specifically how children must be recognized as witnesses and subjects to much of the abuse. (Laing & Humphreys, 2014, p. 4-5)


  1. People who are in abusive relationships frequently mistake intensity for intimacy, and the abuse has no predictable pattern. (Penfold, 2005, p. 1)



  1. Domestic violence was not in the public eye until the Women’s Movement of the 1970’s. (Murphy & Ouimet, 2008, p. 309)


  1. Many health care providers don’t do routine screenings because they are concerned it’s an invasion of the patient’s privacy and that it might anger or offend the patient. Some providers even feel helpless and hopeless to change the patient’s situation. (Murphy & Ouimet, 2008, p. 311)


  1. Women are most commonly the victims of domestic violence, but are certainly not the only victims of this violence. (Laing & Humphreys, 2014, p. 6)


  1. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has made the official name for domestic abuse “intimate partner violence” (IPV). Before this name it was called battering, domestic abuse, spouse abuse, and family violence. (Murphy & Ouimet, 2008, p. 309)




Laing, L., & Humphreys, C. (2014). n: Key concepts in social work and domestic violence. In Social work & domestic violence: Developing critical & reflective practice (pp. 1-16). Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.

Murphy, S., & Ouimet, L. (2008). Intimate Partner Violence: A Call for Social Work Action. Health & Social Work, 33(4), 309-314. Retrieved December 2, 2015.

Penfold, R. (2005). Dragonslippers: This is what an abusive relationship looks like.

New York: Black Cat/Grove Press