(1) The first category focuses on people who do not belong to social, professional, or community organizations. Included in this category are those who also do not belong to labor unions or political groups. Lewis claims that because this group of people are not a part of the larger culture or society, they are less likely to enjoy the benefits of social support networks and community resources. These benefits are known as social capital, and lead to a productive economy. Being that this group does not participate in these social institutions, they are often distrustful of social institutions (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, PG. 294).
(2) The second category that Lewis focuses on are communities that are mostly comprised of people in poor economic situations. Lewis claimed that this group lacked organization beyond the family unit. Being that this group does not engage in activities that support the betterment of the community, they suffer from lower quality public services, social services, and schools. In addition they lack security and safety. All of these factors cause poverty among this group of residents (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, PG. 295).
(3) The third element that Lewis focuses on is the family unit. He made it evident that some families fail to properly socialize children, as well as fail to provide them with the tools they need to grow into healthy adults. As a result, these children are more likely to have children of their own at a younger age, as well as engage in single parenting. It is also common for children raised in these environments to drop out of school and become unemployed (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, PG. 295).
(4) The final category is focused on individual conduct. He explains how it is common for people in poverty to have weak egos, poor impulse control, and a constant sense of failure. People in poverty also find delaying gratification difficult (DiNitto & McNeece, 2008, PG. 295).
DiNitto, D. M., & McNeece, C. A. (2008). Social Work Issues and Opportunities (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: Lyceum Books.